08 - Bibliografia

Equipe Editorial Bibliomed

Um asterisco (*) indica um item que foi particularmente útil na preparação deste número de Population Reports.

1. ABOYEJI, A. and IJAIYA, M. Uterine fibroids: A ten-year clinical review in Ilorin, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Medicine 11(1): 16-19. Jan./Mar. 2002.

2. ADAIR, L., POPKIN, B., and GUILKEY, D. The duration of breastfeeding: How is it affected by biological, socioeconomic, health sector, and food industry factors? Demography 30(1): 63. 1994.

3. ADAMCHAK, D.J. and MBIZVO, M.T. The relationship between fertility and contraceptive prevalence in Zimbabwe. Presented at the The Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Toronto, Canada, May 3-5, 1990. 8 p. (Unpublished)

4. ADONGO, P.B., PHILLIPS, J.F., and BINKA, F.N. The influence of traditional religion on fertility regulation among the Kassena-Nankan of Northern Ghana. Studies in Family Planning 29(1): 23-40. Mar. 1998.

5. AGADJANIAN, V. and PRATA, N. War, peace, and fertility in Angola. Demography 39(2): 215-231. May 2002.

6. AHMED, T. Unmet need for contraception in Pakistan: Pattern and determinants. Demography India 22(1): 31-51. Jan./Jun. 1993.

7. ALAM, N. Birth spacing and infant and early childhood mortality in a high fertility area of Bangladesh: Age-dependent and interactive effects. Journal of Biosocial Science 27(4): 393-404. Oct. 1995.

8. ALAN GUTTMACHER INSTITUTE (AGI). Hopes and realities: Closing the gap between women’s aspirations and their reproductive experiences. New York, AGI, 1995. 56 p.

9. ALAUDDIN, M. and MACLAREN, L. Reaching newlywed and married adolescents. In Focus, Focus on Young Adults, Jul. 1999. p. 1-4.

10. ALI, E.D. The proximate determinants of child survival in the northern regions of the Sudan, 1989/90. Proceedings of the Cairo Demographic Centre (CDC) 23rd Annual Seminar on Population and Development Issues in the Middle East, Africa, and Asia, Cairo, Egypt, 1994. CDC, p. 1081-1120.

11. ARNOLD, F., CHOE, M.K., and ROY, T.K. Son preference, the family-building process and child mortality in India. Population Studies 52(3): 301-315. Nov. 1998.

12. BAHOUS, S., ABU LABAN, A., AL-QUTOB, R., and MAWAJDEH, S. Population policies and population communication in Jordan: Shy responses to serious challenges. Presented at the Population Council Symposium on Family, Gender, and Population Policy: International Debates and Middle Eastern Realities, Cairo, Egypt, February 7-9, 1994. 40 p. (Unpublished)

13. BAJEKAL, N. and LI, T.C. Fibroids, infertility and pregnancy wastage. Human Reproduction Update 6(6): 614-620. Nov./Dec. 2000.

14. BANKOLE, A. Desired fertility and fertility behavior among the Yoruba of Nigeria: A study of couple preferences and subsequent fertility. Population Studies 49(2): 317-328. Jul. 1995.

*15. BANKOLE, A. and WESTOFF, C.F. Childbearing attitudes and intentions. Calverton, Maryland, Macro International, Dec. 1995. (Demographic and Health Surveys Comparative Studies No. 17) 32 p.

16. BARKAT, A., HOUVRAS, I., MACLAREN, L., BEGUM, S., CHOWDHURY, E.I., ISLAM, M., REZA, T., and SABINA, N. The RSDP/Pathfinder Bangladesh newlywed strategy: Results of an assessment. Washington, DC, FOCUS on Young Adults, Aug. 1999.

17. BARNETT, B. and STEIN, J. Women’s voices, women’s lives: The impact of family planning. North Carolina, The Women’s Studies Project, Jun. 1998.

18. BERECZKEI, T., HOFER, A., and IVAN, Z. Low birth weight, maternal birth-spacing decisions, and future reproduction. A cost-benefit analysis. Human Nature 11(2): 183-205. 2000.

19. BERENDES, H.W. Maternal determinants of perinatal mortality and of intrauterine growth retardation and preterm delivery. In: Baum, J.D., ed. Birth Risks. Nestle Nutrition Workshop Series Vol. 31. New York, Raven Press, 1993. p. 47-58.

20. BERGSTROM, S. Genital infections and reproductive health: Infertility and morbidity of mother and child in developing countries. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Disease 69(Suppl.): 99-105. 1990.

21. BLEDSOE, C., BANJA, F., and HILL, A.G. Reproductive mishaps and Western contraception: An African challenge to fertility theory. Population and Development Review 24(1): 15-57. Mar. 1998.

22. BLEDSOE, C.H., HILL, A.G., D’ALESSANDRO, U., and LANGEROCK, P. Constructing natural fertility: The use of Western contraceptive technologies in rural Gambia. Population and Development Review 20(1): 81-113. Mar. 1994.

23. BOERMA, J.T. and BICEGO, G.T. Preceding birth intervals and child survival: Searching for pathways of influence. Studies in Family Planning 23(4): 243-256. Jul./Aug. 1992.

24. BOGUE, D.J. Introduction to pregnancy/birth interval analysis. In: Bogue, D.J., Arriaga, E.E., Anderton, D.L., and Rumsey, G.W., eds. Readings in Population Research Methodology. Fertility Research. Vol. 3. Chicago, Illinois, Social Development Center, p. 59-64.

25. BOHLER, E. Has primary health care reduced infant mortality in East Bhutan? The effects of primary health care and birth spacing on infant and child mortality patterns in East Bhutan. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 40(5): 256-260. Oct. 1994.

26. BOHLER, E. and BERGSTROM, S. Subsequent pregnancy affects morbidity of previous child. Journal of Biosocial Science 27(4): 431-442. Oct. 1995.

27. BONGAARTS, J. The measurement of wanted fertility. New York, Population Council, Research Division, (Working Paper No. 10) 35 p.

28. BONGAARTS, J. The fertility impact of changes in the timing of childbearing in the developing world. Population Studies 53(3): 277-289. Nov. 1999.

29. BONGAARTS, J. and FEENEY, G. On the quantum and tempo of fertility. Population and Development Review 24(2): 271–291.

30. BRUCE, J. Fundamental elements of the quality of care: A simple framework. Studies in Family Planning 21(2): 61-91. Mar/Apr. 1990.

31. BRUCE, J. and JAIN, A. Improving the quality of care through operations research. In: Seidman, M. and Horn, M.C., eds. Operations Research: Helping Family Planning Programs Work Better. New York, Wiley-Liss, 1991. p. 259-282.

32. CABIGON, J.V. The effects of birthspacing and breastfeeding on childhood mortality in the Philippines. Journal of Population 3(1): 1-18. Jun. 1997.

33. CALDWELL, J.C. The population factor in African change. In: Radwan, A.M.A.S., ed. Economic and Demographic Change in Africa. Oxford, England, Clarendon Press, p. 11-35. 34. CHI, P.S. and HSIN, P.L. Family structure and fertility behavior in Taiwan. Ithaca, New York, Cornell University, Population and Development Program, (Population and Development Program Working Paper Series 93.05) 13 p.

35. CHOE, M.K., THAPA, S., and ACHMAD, S. Early marriage and childbearing in Indonesia and Nepal. Honolulu, Hawaii, East-West Center, Nov. 2001. 16 p.

*36. CONDE-AGUDELO, A. Effect of interpregnancy interval on adverse perinatal outcomes in Latin America. Proceedings of the 2nd Champions Meeting on Birth Spacing, Washington, DC, CATALYST Consortium, 20-29 p.

37. CONDE-AGUDELO, A. Interpregnancy interval among adolescents whose previous pregnancy ended in abortion in Latin America. [Power Point Presentation]. Presented at the Birth Spacing Champions Working Groups Meeting, Washington, D.C., May 2, 2002. Catalyst Consortium. 1 p.

*38. CONDE-AGUDELO, A. and BELIZAN, J.M. Maternal morbidity and mortality associated with interpregnancy interval: Cross sectional study. British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Ed.) 321(7271): 1255-1259. Nov. 18, 2000.

39. CONDE-AGUDELO, A. and BELIZAN, J.M. Effect of interpregnancy interval on adverse perinatal outcomes in Latin America. Centro Latinoamericano de Perinatologíay Desarrollo Humano, 2002. (forthcoming report)

40. COONEY, K.A., KONIZ-BOOHER, P., and COLY, S. Taking the first steps: The lactational amenorrhea method, a decade of experience. Final report of the Breastfeeding and MCH Division of the Institute for Reproductive Health (IRH). Washington, DC, Georgetown University, IRH, 1997. 126 p.

41. COSTELLO, A., FRANCIS, V., BYRNE, A., and CLAIRE, P. State of the World’s Newborns. Washington, DC, Save the Children, 2001. 50 p.

42. CURTIS, S.L., DIAMOND, I., and MCDONALD, J.W. Birth interval and family effects on postneonatal mortality in Brazil. Demography 30(1): 33-43. Feb. 1993.

43. DAS, N.P. The effect of birth spacing on current fertility. Journal of Family Welfare 36(4): 36-45. Dec. 1990.

44. DE GRAFT-JOHNSON, J.E. Maternal morbidity in Ghana. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Miami, Florida, May 5-7, 1994. 33 p.

45. DEFO, B.K. Effects of infant feeding practices and birth spacing on infant and child survival: A reassessment from retrospective and prospective data. Journal of Biosocial Science 29(1): 303-326. 1997.

46. DEROSE, L.F. Women’s work and birthspacing in Ghana. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Cincinnati, Ohio, Apr. 1-3, 1993. 22 p. (Unpublished)
47. ELTIGANI, E.E. Childbearing in five Arab countries. Studies in Family Planning 32(1): 17-24. Mar. 2001.

48. ENGENDERHEALTH. Postpartum Family Planning. Presented at the FP and Clinical Services Teams Meeting, Jul. 30, 2002.

49. FAMILY HEALTH INTERNATIONAL. Family planning and women’s lives. Network 18(4): 35. Summer 1998.

50. FAMILY PLANNING ASSOCIATION OF UGANDA and JOHNS HOPKINS SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH. POPULATION COMMUNICATION SERVICES (JHU/PCS). Family planning: We cannot use what we do not understand. Qualitative research on family planning in Uganda. Baltimore, Maryland, JHU/PCS, Oct. 1992. 43 p.

51. FARAHATI, M., BOZORGI, N., and LUKE, B. Influence of maternal age, birth-to-conception intervals and prior perinatal factors on perinatal outcomes. Journal of Reproductive Medicine 38(10): 751-756. Oct. 1993.

52. FARSOUN, M., KHOURY, N., and UNDERWOOD, C. In their own words: A qualitative study of family planning in Jordan. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health Center for Communication Programs, Oct. 1996. (Field Report No. 6) 44 p.

53. FORSTE, R. The effects of breastfeeding and birth spacing on infant and child mortality in Bolivia. Population Studies 48(3): 497-511. Nov. 1994.
54. FORSTE, R. Effects of lactation and contraceptive use on birth-spacing in Bolivia. Social Biology 42(1-2): 108-123. Spring/Summer 1995.

55. FORTNEY, J.A. and ZHANG, J. Maternal death and birth spacing. Studies in Family Planning 29(4): 436. Dec. 1998.

*56. FUENTES-AFFLICK, E. and HESSOL, N.A. Interpregnancy interval and the risk of premature infants. Obstetrics and Gynecology 95(3): 383-390. Mar. 2000.

57. GARNER, P., SMITH, T., BAEA, M., LAI, D., and HEYWOOD, P. Maternal nutritional depletion in a rural area of Papua New Guinea. Tropical and Geographical Medicine 46(3): 169-171. 1994.

58. GRAHAM, M.J., LARSEN, U., and XU, X. Son preference in Anhui Province, China. International Family Planning Perspectives 24(2): 72-77. Jun. 1998. (Available: , Accessed Jul. 4, 2002)

59. GREENE, D.L. Contraceptive use for birth spacing in sub-Saharan Africa. Dissertation Abstracts International 59(8-a): 3221. 1999.

60. GREENWELL, K.F. Contraceptive method mix menu: Providing healthy choices for women. World Health Statistics Quarterly 49(2): 88-93. 1996.

61. GRIBBLE, J.N. Birth intervals, gestational age, and low birth weight: Are the relationships confounded? Population Studies 47(1): 133-146. Mar. 1993.

*62. GRUMMER-STRAWN, L.M., STUPP, P.W., and MEI, Z. Effect of a child’s death on birth spacing: A cross-national analysis. In: Montgomery, M.R. and Cohen, B., eds. From Death to Birth: Mortality Decline and Reproductive Change. Washington, D.C., National Academy Press, 1998. p. 39-73.

63. GYIMAH, S.O. The dynamics of spacing and timing of births in Ghana. London, Canada, Population Studies Centre, University of Western Ontario, May 2002. 34 p. (Available: , Accessed Jul. 17, 2002)

64. GYIMAH, S.O. Lagged effect of childhood mortality on reproductive behavior in Ghana and Kenya. London, Canada, Population Studies Centre, University of Western Ontario, May 2002. 23 p. (Available: , Accessed Jul. 27, 2002)

65. HAGGERTY, P.A. and RUTSTEIN, S.O. Breastfeeding and complementary infant feeding, and the postpartum effects of breastfeeding. Calverton, Maryland, Macro International, Inc., Jun. 1999. (Demographic and Health Surveys Comparative Studies No. 30) 281 p.

66. HATCHER, R.A., RINEHART, W., BLACKBURN, R., GELLER, J.S., and SHELTON, J.D. The Essentials of Contraceptive Technology. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Population Information Program, Jul. 1997. 340 p.

67. HIGGINS, P.A. and ALDERMAN, H. Labor and women’s nutrition: A study of energy expenditure, fertility, and nutritional status in Ghana. Washington, DC, World Bank, Oct 1992. 41 p.

68. HOA, H.T., TOAN, N.V., JOHANSSON, A., HOA, V.T., HOJER, B., and PERSSON, L.A. Child spacing and two-child policy in practice in rural Vietnam: Cross sectional survey. British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Ed.) 313(7065): 1113-1116. Nov. 2, 1996.

69. HOBCRAFT, J. Child spacing and child mortality. Presented at the Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, Washington, D.C., Aug. 5-7, 1991. Population Investigation Committee, London School of Economics. 14 p.

*70. HOBCRAFT, J., MCDONALD, J.W., and RUTSTEIN, S. Childspacing effects of infant and early child mortality. Population Index 49(4): 585-618. 1983.

71. HOGAN, D.P., BERHANU, B., and HAILEMARIAM, A. Household organization, women’s autonomy, and contraceptive behavior in southern Ethiopia. Studies in Family Planning 30(4): 302-314. Dec. 1999.

72. HUFFMAN, S.L. and LABBOK, M.H. Breastfeeding in family planning programs: A help or a hindrance? International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 47(Suppl): S23-S32. Dec. 1994.

73. HUTTER, I. Reproductive health and child spacing in rural South India: Contribution to a reorientation of population policies in India. Background paper. Groningen, Netherlands, University of Groningen, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, 1998. (Demographic Reports No. 23) 154 p.

74. IKAMARI, L. Birth intervals and child survival in Kenya. African Journal of Health Sciences 5(1): 15-24. Jan./Mar. 1998.

75. INAOKA, E., WAKAI, S., NAKAMURA, Y., AL BABILY, Y., and SAGHAYROUN, A.A. Correlates of visit regularity among family planning clients in urban Yemen. Advances in Contraception 15(4): 257-274.

76. ISVAN, N.A. Productive and reproductive decisions in Turkey: The role of domestic bargaining. Journal of Marriage and the Family 53(4): 1057-1070. Nov. 1991.

77. JAIN, A. Should eliminating unmet need for contraception continue to be a program priority? International Family Planning Perspectives 25(Suppl.): S39-S43, S49. Jan. 1999.

78. JANSEN, W. (Prime II) [Prime II Project Description] Personal communication, Aug. 29, 2002.

79. JANSEN, W., FRICK, D., and MASON, R. The "X factor in birth-spacers: Age and parity in demand and need for birth-spacing in 15 developing countries. Presented at the Population Association of America, Atlanta, May 9-11, 2002. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

80. JELIFFE, D. and MADDOCKS, I. Ecological malnutrition in the New Guinea Highlands. Clinical Pediatrics 3: 423-428. 1964.

81. KALLAN, J.E. Effects of interpregnancy intervals on preterm birth, intrauterine growth retardation, and fetal loss. Social Biology 39(3-4): 231-245. Fall/Winter 1992.

82. KENNEDY, K.I. Post-partum contraception. Bailliere’s Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology 10(1): 25-41. Apr. 1996.

83. KHAN, K.S., CHIEN, P.F., and KHAN, N.B. Nutritional stress of reproduction. A cohort study over two consecutive pregnancies. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 77(4): 395-401. Apr. 1998.

84. KHAN, M.E. and CERNADA, G. Promoting spacing: A step towards paradigm shift. In: Khan, M.E. and Cernada, G., eds. Spacing as an Alternative Strategy. India’s Family Welfare Programme. Delhi, India, B.R. Publishing Corporation, 1996. p. 1-6.

85. KHANNA, H. Present status and future directions for increasing the use of information, education and communication for promoting spacing methods. In: Khan, M.E. and Cernada, G., eds. Spacing as an Alternative Strategy. India’s Family Welfare Programme. Delhi, India, B.R. Publishing Corporation, 1996. p. 217-226.

86. KIRAGU, K., KRENN, S., KUSEMIJU, B., AJIBOYE, J.K., CHIDI, I., and KALU, O. Promoting family planning through mass media in Nigeria: Campaigns using public service announcements and a national logo. Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Center for Communication Programs, Jul. 1996. (IEC Field Report No. 5) 58 p.

*87. KIRK, D. and PILLET, B. Fertility levels, trends, and differentials in sub-Saharan Africa in the 1980s and 1990s. Studies in Family Planning 29(1): 1-22. Mar. 1998.

88. KISHOR, S. Gender differentials in child mortality: A review of the evidence. In: Das Gupta, M., Chen, L.C., and Krishnan, T.N., eds. Women’s Health in India: Risk and Vulnerability. Bombay, Oxford University Press, 1995.

89. KLERMAN, L.V., PHELAN, S.T., POOLE, V.L., and GOLDENBERG, R.L. Family planning: An essential component of prenatal care. Journal of the American Medical Womens Association 50(5): 147-151. Sep./Oct. 1995.

90. KOENIG, M.A., PHILLIPS, J.F., CAMPBELL, O.M., and D’SOUZA, S. Birth intervals and childhood mortality in rural Bangladesh. Demography 27(2): 251-265. May 1990.

91. KOLS, A. and SHERMAN, J.E. Family planning programs: Improving quality. Series J, No. 47. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Population Information Program, Nov. 1998. 40 p.

92. LABBOK, M.H., PEREZ, A., VALDES, V., SEVILLA, F., WADE, K., LAUKARAN, V.H., COONEY, K.A., COLY, S., SANDERS, C., and QUEENAN, J.T. The Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM): A postpartum introductory family planning method with policy and program implications. Advances in Contraception 10(2): 93-109. Jun. 1994.

*93. LABBOK, M.H., PEREZ-ESCAMILLA, R., PETERSON, A.E., and COLY, S. Breastfeeding and child spacing: Country profiles. Washington, DC, Georgetown University, Institute for Reproductive Health, 1997. 97 p.

94. LANG, J., LIEBERMAN, E., RYAN, K., and MONSON, R. Interpregnancy interval and risk of preterm labor. American Journal of Epidemiology 132(2): 304-309. Aug. 1, 1990.

95. LARSEN, U. Primary and secondary infertility in sub-Saharan Africa. International Journal of Epidemiology 29: 285-291. 2000.

96. LARSEN, U., CHUNG, W., and DAS GUPTA, M. Fertility and son preference in Korea. Population Studies 52(3): 317-325. Nov. 1998.

97. LAWOYIN, T.O. and OYEDIRAN, A.B. A prospective study on some factors which influence the delivery of low birth weight babies in a developing country. African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences 21(1): 33-39. Oct. 1992.

98. LESOTHO MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND SOCIAL WELFARE and WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. Lesotho Safe Motherhood Initiative women’s health survey. Focus group discussions. [Draft]. Lesotho, Apr. 2, 1995. 45 p. (Unpublished)

99. LINDSTROM, D.P. and BERHANU, B. The effects of breastfeeding and birth spacing on infant and early childhood mortality in Ethiopia. Social Biology 47(1-2): 1-17. Spring/ Summer 2000.

100. MADISE, N.J. and DIAMOND, I. Determinants of infant mortality in Malawi: An analysis to control for death clustering within families. Journal of Biosocial Science 27(1): 95-106. Jan. 1995.

101. MAHFOUZ, A.A., EL-SAID, M.M., ALAKIJA, W., BADAWI, I.A., AL-ERIAN, R.A., and ABDEL MONEIM, M. Anemia among pregnant women in the Asir region, Saudi Arabia: An epidemiologic study. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 25(1): 84-87. Mar. 1994.

102. MANDA, S.O. Birth intervals, breastfeeding and determinants of childhood mortality in Malawi. Social Science and Medicine 48(3): 301-312. Feb. 1999.
103. MARTINE, G. Brazil’s fertility decline, 1965-1995: A fresh look at key factors. Population and Development Review 22(1): 47-75. Mar. 1996.

104. MATHEMA, N. (World Education) [Birth Spacing Messages] Personal communication, August 26, 2002.

105. MBOUP, G. and SAHA, T. Fertility levels, trends and differentials. Calverton, Maryland, Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, Aug. 7 1998. (Demographic and Health Surveys Comparative Studies No. 28) 78 p.

106. MCCAULEY, A., ROBEY, B., BLANC, A., AND GELLER, J. Opportunities for women through reproductive choice. Population Reports, Series M, No. 12. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Population Information Program, Jul. 1994. 39 p.

107. MERCHANT, K., MARTORELL, R., GONZALEZ-COSSIO, T., RIVERA, J., and HAAS, J.D. Maternal nutritional depletion: Evidence of responses in women to frequent reproductive cycling. Washington, DC, International Center for Research on Women, Mar. 1990. (Maternal Nutrition and Health Care Program Research Report Series No. 3) 38 p.

108. MHLOYI, M. and MAPFUMO, O. Zimbabwe: Impact of family planning on women’s participation in the development process. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, Family Health International and University of Zimbabwe, 1998.

109. MILLER, J.E. Birth intervals and perinatal health: An investigation of three hypotheses. Family Planning Perspectives 23(2): 62-70. Mar./Apr. 1991.

110. MILLER, J.E. Birth order, interpregnancy interval and birth outcomes among Filipino infants. Journal of Biosocial Science 26(2): 243-259. Apr. 1994.

111. MILLER, J.E., TRUSSELL, J., PEBLEY, A.R., and VAUGHAN, B. Birth spacing and child mortality in Bangladesh and the Philippines. Demography 29(2): 305-318. May 1992.

112. MILLMAN, S.R. and COOKSEY, E.C. Birth weight and the effects of birth spacing and breastfeeding on infant mortality. Studies in Family Planning 18(4): 202-212. Jul./Aug. 1987.

*113. MISHRA, S.B. Birth spacing methods in the Indian family welfare programme. In: M.E. Khan, G.C., ed. Spacing as an Alternative Strategy. India’s Family Welfare Programme. Delhi, India, B.R. Publishing Corporation, 1996.

114. MOZUMDER, A.B., BARKAT E, K., KANE, T.T., LEVIN, A., and AHMED, S. The effect of birth interval on malnutrition in Bangladeshi infants and young children. Journal of Biosocial Science 32(3): 289-300. Jul. 2000.

115. MUHURI, P.K. and MENKEN, J. Adverse effects of next birth, gender, and family composition on child survival in rural Bangladesh. Population Studies 51(3): 279-294. Nov. 1997.

116. MUHWAVA, W. and TIMAEUS, I. Fertility decline in Zimbabwe. London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 1996. (Center for Population Studies Research Paper No. 96-1) (Available: , Accessed Sep. 4, 2002)

117. NATH, D.C. and LAND, K.C. Sex preference and third birth intervals in a traditional Indian society. Journal of Biosocial Science 26(3): 377-388. Jul. 1994.

118. NATH, D.C., LAND, K.C., and GOSWAMI, G. Effects of the status of women on the first-birth interval in Indian urban society. Journal of Biosocial Science 31(1): 55-69. Jan. 1999.

119. NATH, D.C., LAND, K.C., and SINGH, K.K. The role of breast-feeding beyond postpartum amenorrhoea on the return of fertility in India: A life table and hazards model analysis. Journal of Biosocial Science 26(2): 191-206. Apr. 1994.

120. NDUATI, R., JOHN, G., MBORI-NGACHA, D., RICHARDSON, B., OVERBAUGH, J., MWATHA, A., NDINYA-ACHOLA, J., BWAYO, J., ONYANGO, F.E., HUGHES, J., and KREISS, J. Effect of breastfeeding and formula feeding on transmission of HIV-1: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA 283(9): 1167-1174. Mar. 1, 2000.

121. NEEL, N.R. and ALVAREZ, J.O. Maternal risk factors for low birth weight and intrauterine growth retardation in a Guatemalan population. Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organization, Vol. 25 No. 2, 1991. p. 152-165.

122. NIGERIA FEDERAL MINISTRY OF HEALTH. Well spaced children are every parent’s joy. Lagos, Health Education Division, Poster. 1990.

123. NYARKO, P., MADISE, N., and DIAMOND, I. Infant mortality and the pace of childbearing in Ghana: Some evidence of son preference. Proceedings of the Third African Population Conference: The African Population in the 21st Century, Durban, South Africa, Dec. 6-10, 1999. Department of Welfare, Republic of South Africa, 619-644 p.

124. OBISESAN, K.A., ADEYEMO, A.A., OHAERI, J.U., ARAMIDE, F.A., and OKAFOR, S.I. The family planning aspects of the practice of traditional healers in Ibadan, Nigeria. West African Journal of Medicine 16(3): 184-190. Jul./Sep. 1997.

*125. OFOSU, Y. Breast-feeding and birth spacing: Erosion of West African traditions. In: Adepoju, A. and Oppong, C., eds. Gender, Work, and Population in Sub-Saharan Africa. London, James Currey, 1994. p. 173-190.

126. OHENEBA-SAKYI, Y. and HEATON, T.B. Effects of socio- demographic variables on birth intervals in Ghana. Journal of Comparative Family Studies 24(1): 113-135. Spring 1993.

*127. OMER, M.M. Factors affecting birth interval in Egypt. In: CDC 23rd Annual Seminar on Population and Development Issues in the Middle East, Africa and Asia, 1993. Research Monograph Series No. 23. Cairo, Cairo Demographic Centre, 1994. p. 633-658.

128. PALLONI, A., PINTO AGUIRRE, G., and LASTIRI, S. The effects of breast-feeding and the pace of childbearing on early childhood mortality in Mexico. Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organization 28(2): 93-111. Jun. 1994.

129. PARK, C.B., ISLAM, M.A., CHAKRABORTY, N., and KANTNER, A. Partitioning the effect of infant and child death on subsequent fertility: An exploration in Bangladesh. Population Studies 52(3): 345-356. Nov. 1998.

130. PARK, C.B., SIASAKUL, S., and SAENGTIENCHAI, C. Effect of birth spacing on infant survival in Thailand: Two-stage logit analysis. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 25(1): 50-59. Mar. 1994.

*131. PATHAK, K.B., FEENEY, G., and LUTHER, N.Y. Alternative contraceptive methods and fertility decline in India. Mumbai, India, International Institute for Population Sciences, Mar. 28, 1998. 28 p. (Available: , Accessed Jul. 29, 2002)

132. PATHAK, K.B. and PANDEY, A. Tempo of fertility in Orissa: A study based on birth intervals. Journal of Family Welfare 39(4): 1-8. Dec. 1993.

133. PATHFINDER INTERNATIONAL. Changing attitudes among newly married couples in Bangladesh. Changing Lives: Highlights of Pathfinder International’s Projects Around the World, Spring 1996. p. 1-2.

134. PEBLEY, A.R. and MILLMAN, S.R. Birthspacing and child survival. International Family Planning Perspectives 12(3): 71-79. Sep. 1986.

135. PETRO-NUSTAS, W. Men’s knowledge of and attitudes toward birthspacing and contraceptive use in Jordan. International Family Planning Perspectives 25(4): 181-185. Dec. 1999.

136. PILE, J. (EngenderHealth) [EngenderHealth Birth Spacing Activities] Personal communication, Aug. 26, 2002.

137. PLANNED PARENTHOOD ASSOCIATION OF GHANA (PPAG). Too close. Accra, Ghana, PPAG, Poster. 1995.

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